The ebook represents the result of a synchronic and diachronic cross-African survey of quotative indexes. those are linguistic expressions that sign within the ongoing discourse the presence of a quote (often referred to as ""direct said speech""). For this goal, 39 African languages have been chosen to symbolize the genealogical and geographical variety of the continent. The learn is predicated totally on this language pattern, specifically at the research of quotative indexes and similar expressions from a textual content corpus of every pattern language, but in addition incorporates a wide variety of knowledge from the broadcast literature on different African in addition to non- African languages. it's the first typological research of direct mentioned discourse of this value in a wide team of languages. The publication may possibly hence function a place to begin of comparable reviews in different geographical parts or perhaps with a world scope, in addition to stimulate extra distinct investigations of specific languages. the result of the African survey problem numerous triumphing cross-linguistic generalizations relating to quotative indexes and mentioned discourse structures as an entire, of which are of specific curiosity. within the syntactic area, the place mentioned discourse has in most cases been handled less than so- known as sentential complementation, the research helps the minority view that direct mentioned discourse and likewise a wide part of oblique mentioned discourse express hardly ever any facts for the declare that the mentioned clause is a syntactic item supplement of a few matrix verb. With recognize to grammaticalization, the paintings concludes that speech verbs are, opposed to universal trust, now not a common resource of quotatives, complementizers, and different similar markers. way more common resources are markers of similarity and demeanour; primary verbs of equation, inchoativity, and motion; and pronominals bearing on the quote or the speaker. one other extra normal end of the research is that specifically direct mentioned discourse should be fruitfully analyzed as a part of a bigger linguistic area referred to as ""mimesis"". This contains expressions which characterize a scenario through enactment/ functionality instead of with assistance from ""canonical"" linguistic symptoms and contains, along with mentioned discourse, world-referring physically gestures, ideophone-like indicators, and non-linguistic sound.
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